This is usually the result of ignoring an enlarged spleen for too long. The spleen is located in the upper left abdomen, so it’s not uncommon for an individual to feel pain here when they have a ruptured spleen. Spleen ruptured by trauma: Specialty : Emergency medicine A splenic injury, which includes a ruptured spleen, is any injury to the spleen. A ruptured spleen is a medical condition which can result in severe complications or death if it is not treated in a timely fashion. If you could see the spleen, it looks purple and squishy. A ruptured spleen can cause blood to leak inside your body. 2011;18(1):60-7. Diercks DB, et al. doi:10.1136/tsaco-2017-000075. Bleeding From Esophageal Varices: Causes and More, Trauma Facts - The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, Spontaneous Splenic Rupture as a Rare Initial Presentation in an Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patient, Spontaneous splenic rupture resulted from infectious mononucleosis, Computed tomography of blunt spleen injury: a pictorial review, An update on nonoperative management of the spleen in adults, Blunt Splenic Trauma - The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, Spleen Injury - Injuries and Poisoning - MSD Manual Consumer Version, Spontaneous rupture of the spleen operated in gynecological unit mistaken for ruptured hemorrhagic ovarian cyst: total splenectomy, Pathological rupture of the normal spleen: Review with the literature. An enlarged spleen. A ruptured spleen can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Half of the spleen tissue is called the red pulp and is responsible for filtering out old and damaged red blood cells, and acts as a reservoir for platelets and red blood cells. A ruptured spleen happens when the capsule covering the spleen surface breaks out, pouring blood out into the abdominal area. This is a relatively recent option and is not always available. Treatment of the splenic cyst involves techniques like the removal of epithelial lining, Removal of some part of the spleen and the cyst around and the complete removal of the spleen. MSD Manual Consumer Version. In a trauma patient with an injury to the abdomen, the most common symptoms of a ruptured spleen are pain and tenderness of the abdomen, particularly on the left upper quadrant. Some emergency conditions involve immediate surgical repair. 3. Risk of sepsis is highest in young children, especially the first two years after the spleen has been removed. At times, surgical procedures may be carried out to seal the rupture. Your doctor might recommend ways to reduce the risk of infection, such as vaccinations against pneumonia and influenza. Usual ... Read More. All rights reserved. 2019;9(4):152. doi:10.3390/diagnostics9040152. The full function of the spleen is still under debate, but we do know it plays a major role in the immune system. Diagnosis and treatment of atraumatic splenic rupture: Experience of 8 cases. Tests and procedures used to diagnose a ruptured spleen include: Treatment for a ruptured spleen will depend on the severity of your condition. This condition involves damage to the spleen which causes the organ to start leaking blood, causing the abdomen to fill with blood. The most common cause of a ruptured spleen is blunt trauma to the abdomen, such as that experienced in a car crash or a fall from a significant height. A rupture of the spleen will need surgery to remove it. The pain is in the left side of the abdomen just below the rib cage. Updated May 2012. If you have an enlarged spleen, a less forceful trauma might cause rupture. Without emergency treatment, a ruptured spleen can cause life-threatening internal bleeding. The most common causes are the following: Vehicular accidents; Bicycle accidents ; Injuries while playing sports such as hockey and football; Violence or torture; It can also be caused by an underlying disease, such as malaria, mononucleosis, lymphoma, and hemolytic anemia. 7th ed. Since the spleen is so rich with blood flow, bleeding from a rupture can be significant. [Updated 2018 Oct 27]. As the circulatory system struggles to get blood to important areas such as the brain, the patient can experience sweating, lightheadedness, fatigue, confusion, and eventually unconsciousness. For best results, drink ½ cup of lemon juice or add lemon to a glass of water. Blunt trauma is the type of trauma that does not directly penetrate the skin, like a stabbing or gunshot wound. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. Doherty GM, ed. Published 2014 Nov 26. Previous: Management and Treatment Next: Outlook / Prognosis. Management of splenic injury in the adult trauma patient. Others heal with rest and time. However, many moderate injuries and minor ruptures can be cured without operation. Hoffman R, et al. The treatment involves surgery to stop the … This is pain that the patient feels somewhere other than where the injury is located. Lemons contain citric acid that helps to treat spleen problems by removing dead cells and bacteria. In: Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. Treatment ranges from abdominal injury avoidance in the young healthy patient with splenomegaly due to infectious mononucleosis, to splenectomy of a massively enlarged spleen in a patient with Hairy cell leu… Partial splenectomy includes preserving of at least 1/4th of the tissue and also avoiding any chance of … Many small or moderate-sized injuries to the spleen can heal without surgery. Liu J, et al. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2018. The full spleen is removed through surgery. By using Verywell Health, you accept our, Splenectomy: What to Expect on the Day of Surgery. Doctors monitor the patient’s condition and provide nonsurgical care, such as blood transfusions, if required. Close monitoring, bed rest, and blood pressure control are used to give the spleen time to heal. How Is a Ruptured Spleen Treated? Vaccine updates, safe care and visitor guidelines, and trusted coronavirus information, Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Mayo Clinic School of Continuous Professional Development, Mayo Clinic School of Graduate Medical Education, Book: Mayo Clinic Family Health Book, 5th Edition, Newsletter: Mayo Clinic Health Letter — Digital Edition, FREE book offer – Mayo Clinic Health Letter, New Year Special -  40% off – Mayo Clinic Diet Online. A ruptured spleen is a serious condition whether it comes from trauma or not. Further interventions may be needed to manage the bleeding of a ruptured spleen. Significant damage can lead to other conditions. He is an attending emergency medicine physician at White Plains Hospital in White Plains, New York and also works at an urgent care center and a telemedicine company that provides care to patients across the country. More commonly in cases where the spleen has ruptured, a partial or total splenectomy is performed. Chirurgia. The spleen can become inflamed and enlarged from infection, cancer, or other diseases. Splenic injury. Trauma Facts - The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. Some people require immediate surgery. If you are unsure, you should arrange an … 2016;111:393. If available, a CT scan is the best option for evaluating the abdomen and diagnosing a ruptured spleen in a clinically stable patient. CT scans can detect as little as 100 cubic centimeters of blood in the abdomen, an amount similar to about one-third of a can of soda. This information can be very useful in helping medical professionals to come to an initial diagnosis. Make a donation. The spleen has many blood vessels, so the surgeon finds the blood vessels leading to and from the spleen and places clips on them to permanently stop blood from flowing through to the spleen. 0 comment . If it's necessary to remove your spleen, you'll be at increased risk of serious infections, such as sepsis. In some cases, you may have bruised skin over the injured area. Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Akoury T, Whetstone DR. Splenic Rupture. Treatment for a ruptured spleen will depend on the severity of your condition. Some cases may be managed without surgery. In these conditions, the spleen capsule becomes … Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2018. https://www.clinicalkey.com. It is said that a ruptured spleen is considered to be a medical emergency because if this is not treated promptly, it will cause massive internal bleeding in the abdominal cavity. 2014;19:324. Go straight to A&E if you think you have ruptured or damaged your spleen. Patients with splenomegaly from any cause are at increased risk of splenic rupture, and increased attention must be made to protect the patient from abdominal trauma. Once this diagnosis is confirmed, some of the first steps and treatment include: Placing an IV and giving intravenous fluids to support blood pressure. In the case of a ruptured spleen, the most common referred pain is felt in the left shoulder or left side of the chest wall. Chirurgia (Bucur). Ⓒ 2021 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved, Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Dragomir M, et al. It's considered a solid organ, meaning it's not hollow like a bladder or a stomach. It also helps to heal the damage done to the spleen while reducing inflammation and irritation. Sometimes, if the spleen was injured, it may heal with rest. In some cases, medical care in the hospital will improve, and in other cases, surgery may be needed immediately. Ruptured spleen needs immediate medical treatment to avoid fatal complications. Surgery for a ruptured spleen can include: Removing the spleen (splenectomy). When the spleen experiences trauma, a serious condition called 'ruptured spleen' may occur. Close monitoring, bed rest, and blood pressure control are used to give the spleen time to heal. This can, in turn, lead to the patient feeling pain in their left shoulder. In: StatPearls [Internet]. New York, N.Y.:McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Spleen Injury - Injuries and Poisoning - MSD Manual Consumer Version. Splenic implant assessment in trauma. In: Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Surgery. Eko FE, Fouelifack FY, de Paul EV. In this surgery, the surgeon will remove a portion or all of the injured spleen. causes abdominal pain, usually severe, but not always. Of patients with traumatic injuries to multiple body systems, 10 to 12 percent have abdominal trauma. The liver and spleen are the two most commonly injured abdominal organs. Michael Menna, DO, is board-certified in emergency medicine. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2012;3(3):97-99. doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2011.08.012. In the past, treatment for a spleen injury always meant removal of the entire organ, called a splenectomy. Lemons also provide nutrients to the spleen to speed up recovery. Symptoms include pain in the abdomen and nausea. Medications for pain control, which could include narcotics or opiates. Infectious mononucleosis and other Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases. Diagnostics. As blood enters the abdominal cavity, it can lead to a symptom known as referred pain. What to Expect on the Day of Your Exploratory Laparotomy. Obviously, a ruptured spleen caused by a traumatic injury cannot be prevented. Many people with a ruptured spleen experience serious … Rod Brouhard is an emergency medical technician paramedic (EMT-P), journalist, educator, and advocate for emergency medical service providers and patients. Aast.org. Causes of Collarbone Pain and Treatment Options, What Everyone Should Know About Traumatic Brain Injuries. Treatment for Ruptured Spleen. Chemotherapy may be helpful if the malignant tumor has spread to other body parts. Accessed April 16, 2019. Uptodate.com. Treatment of a bruised spleen Treatment for a bruised spleen depends on how severe the injury is. Updated April 2017. You're likely to stay in the hospital while doctors observe your condition and provide nonsurgical care, such as blood transfusions, if necessary. Some patients may require immediate surgery, whereas, in some patients, a ruptured spleen heals with proper rest and time. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Jan. Tunçyürek Ö, Tunçyürek P, Ertekin E, et al. It can also become enlarged as a result of a health condition, such as cirrhosis, leukaemia or rheumatoid arthritis. The abdominal muscles contract reflexively and feel rigid. UpToDate. In some cases of non surgical care of ruptured spleen … Considering trauma is the fourth leading cause of death, that indicates a lot of ruptured spleens and livers. This content does not have an Arabic version. Splenic Rupture: In some cases, splenic infarction can cause rupture of the spleen and hemorrhage. Malays J Med Sci. Read our, Medically reviewed by Jamin Brahmbhatt, MD, Medically reviewed by Shaheen Lakhan, MD, PhD, Medically reviewed by Douglas A. Nelson, MD, Medically reviewed by Jennifer Schwartz, MD, Medically reviewed by Laura Campedelli, PT, DPT, Medically reviewed by Kashif J. Piracha, MD, Verywell Health uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. A ruptured spleen is a medical emergency, as it can cause life-threatening bleeding. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Your spleen, situated just under your rib cage on your left side, helps your body fight infection and filter old blood cells from your bloodstream.A forceful blow to your abdomen — during a sporting mishap, a fistfight or a car crash, for example — is the usual cause of a ruptured spleen. View 1 more answer. Hospitalization. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the condition and can include rest and observation, surgical repair, or splenectomy. Hassan R, Abd aziz A, Md ralib AR, Saat A. Computed tomography of blunt spleen injury: a pictorial review. Non-surgical management of a ruptured spleen is the primary option for treatment as long as the patient's blood pressure is stable and there is not severe bleeding. Your doctor opts for immediate surgery in the following cases: When your doctor suspects massive internal bleeding; Suspected splenic rupture triggering unstable vital signs or low blood pressure . Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Jan. Chiotoroiu AL, Venter DM, Negoi I, Vartosu C, Plotogea O, Paun S, Vartic M, Beuran M; -. Ultrasound is an option but still cannot rule out a ruptured spleen adequately. In: StatPearls [Internet]. [Updated 2018 Nov 14]. Zarzaur B, Rozycki G. An update on nonoperative management of the spleen in adults. A ruptured spleen (a fist-sized organ located in the left upper abdomen) occurs when the surface of this organ is injured, which can lead to internal bleeding. 64-68 The white pulp is expanded with germinal center formation commonly present in adult patients, compared with the inactive white pulp of the usual adult spleen. Send thanks to the doctor. "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "MayoClinic.org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. The spleen can become swollen after an infection or injury. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2016;26:163-5. 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