They were welcoming Koreans and Chinese. The political system evolved into what historians call bakuhan, a combination of the terms bakufu and han (domains) to describe the government and society … Concern for strict status differentiation was evident even in family relationships, as absolute obedience was demanded from members of the family toward the house head (kachō). THE TOKUGAWA SHOGUNATE OF JAPAN 6. Distinctive development also occurred in the fine arts and crafts. As the tea ceremony became popular, many schools emerged, most notably the Sen-ke (Sen house), the school of Sen Rikyū. The period ushered in 260 … During the Tokugawa regime, the society was organized according to Confucian principles, stressing the importance of morality - with particularly emphasis on filial piety and loyalty (that is, a child's loyalty to his or her parent) - and the hierarchical ordering of society. But the ideas of Neo-Confucianism, especially of the Sung dynasty Chu Hsi school (Shushigaku)—which had been well-known to political and ethical thinkers since the 13th century—provided an intellectual rationalization for the status-oriented social structure of the bakuhan system. What Did Tokugawa Do When Shogun of Japan? She has taught at the high school and university levels in the U.S. and South Korea. The chief theme running through Chikamatsu’s works is the idea of giri (“duty”), which is to be understood not so much as feudal morality enforced from above but rather as the traditional consciousness of honour and dignity in one’s motives and of social consciousness in human relations. Tendō essentially took on the connotation of the Chinese term t’ien-ming (“mandate of heaven”; Japanese: tenmei), and Razan and other Confucian thinkers provided an explanation and justification for changes in rulers through the process of gekokujō (overthrow of superiors by inferiors) of the Sengoku period. He also introduced a new beauty to haiku by using simple words. Japanese wood block print depicting a Kabuki threatre during the Tokugawa Shogunate. As Japanese cities syllable, 3-line verse poem. It continued to develop until the three great masters—Takemoto Gidayū as narrator, Chikamatsu Monzaemon as composer, and Tatsumatsu Hachirobei as puppeteer—made jōruri into a highly popular Tokugawa performing art, enjoyed by all classes of society. Tokugawa Society and Culture 2. He also wrote more than 30 kabuki plays. (“Tokugawa Ieyasu") This was due in part to their ability to push Western influence away, at least for some time. Tokugawa Ieyasu Quotes #2 : Japanese Warriors Samurai. Britannica now has a site just for parents! 3. The Tokugawa officials used this paradigm to divide Japan’s society into four groups, from the superior to the inferior. Kallie Szczepanski. Thus, even the rural areas of Japan were increasingly drawn into a monetized economy, and peasants everywhere paid part of their taxes in money. Edo is the former name for what is now Tokyo. In 1615, the Tokugawa army destroyed the Toyotomi stronghold at Osaka. Razan is said to have had a hand in the drafting of all bakufu official documents and in the formulation of bakufu laws. •Theatres came into being – women were banned from acting and acting was hereditary. The Tokugawa shogunate organized Japanese society under the strict Tokugawa class system and banned most foreigners under the isolationist policies of Sakoku to promote political stability. Matsuo Bashō became closely attached to haiku (although the word itself was not coined until the 19th century) and fashioned it into a popular form of poetry. Toyotomi Hideyoshi Farmer turned military commander Takes control and moves capital to Osaka 7. Actors in By reducing Ōsaka Castle and quelling the Shimabara Rebellion, the Tokugawa regime brought to an end the period of violence and ushered in an era of unprecedented domestic peace. One of his followers, Kumazawa Banzan, who criticized the growing autocracy in the politics of his day, transformed Wang Yang-ming studies from a means for individual spiritual training into a method for political reformation. When people today think of “traditional” Japan, they are often thinking of the Edo/Tokugawa Era from 1603 to 1868. The art of the tea ceremony came to be monopolized by the house heads of the various schools, fostering the development of the “profession” of tea master. Wang Yang-ming studies (Ōyōmeigaku in Japanese) were characterized by a strong subjective idealism but, at the same time, were quite practical since they emphasized the unity of thought and deed. When attempts to restrict production failed, bakufu and han administrators encouraged such production, seeking to supplement their finances by monopolizing the farmers’ commercial goods and selling them themselves. Among the family members, the status of women was especially low, and the idea of danson-johi (“respect for the male, contempt for the female”) was prevalent. Bashō was born into a warrior family, but after becoming a rōnin he devoted himself to the development of haiku as a literary form. 2. Orthodox Chu Hsi thought was a perfect conservative philosophy of statecraft that valued loyalty and order above all else. Purely commercial cities and post towns (towns along highways) also arose throughout the country as part of this massive urbanization. Updated June 21, 2019 The Tokugawa Shogunate defined modern Japanese history by centralizing the power of the nation's government and uniting its people. This article explores the relationships between ritual, material culture, and political authority in early modern Japan by focusing on the Japanese tea ceremony, a highly formalized socio-cultural activity elaborated from the customs related to the consumption of powdered green tea. But Moronobu’s real contribution was to develop the Chinese technique of wood-block printing to produce the ukiyo-e (“pictures of the floating world”) style, which met a growing popular demand. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order, isolationist foreign policies, a stable population, popular enjoyment of arts and culture, recycling of materials, and sustainable forest management. In Edo, drawing in traditional styles was further developed by Hishikawa Moronobu, who not only depicted the usual courtesans and actors but also vividly portrayed various aspects of the lives of ordinary people. Besides the licensed quarters for prostitutes, theatrical districts also flourished in the Genroku era. Ogata Kōrin, for example, brought decorative painting to its highest stage of perfection, bequeathing to posterity many splendid masterpieces in gold lacquer (maki-e) and other media. Thus, the bakuhan system was firmly solidified by the second half of the 17th century. This collection examines the impact of East Asian religion and culture on the public sphere, defined as an idealized discursive arena that mediates the official and private spheres. It also gives references for further reading on important topics related to Tokugawa Japan. This investigation of the economy and cultural politics of Sensōji, however, shows that its culture of prayer and play reflected changes taking place in Tokugawa Japan, particularly in the city of Edo. Chu Hsi studies opposed the new worldview and logic introduced by Christianity, which gave more importance to God than to the ruler-subject relationship, and also bitterly criticized the other-worldly aspects of Buddhism, which had been the ideology of the medieval era. Townspeople also attended kabuki theatre. In western Japan (Kyōto and Ōsaka), the style that emerged was called wagoto (“tender business”), which had a pronounced comical element and concentrated on love; by contrast, the popular form of Edo kabuki was aragoto (“rough business”), which focused on the rash actions of historical heroes. As Japanese cities grew, new forms of entertainment emerged in the form of literature, drama, and art. Tokugawa Ieyasu, the first Tokugawa shogun, chose Edo (present-day Tokyo) as Japan’s new capital, and it became one of the largest cities of its time and was the site of a thriving urban culture. Many great Edo-period artists—e.g., Andō Hiroshige and Katsushika Hokusai—developed the ukiyo-e genre into a unique Japanese art form. The permit guaranteed Dutch ships. These castle towns gradually came to acquire the character of commercial cities, as some farmers abandoned the countryside and merchants emerged to serve the needs of the burgeoning urban population. It was allowed once again, but only after substantial reform, in which even women’s parts were played by adult males (who were distinguished from the wakashū by shaved forelocks). Bashō found the existing haikai style unsatisfying. 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